No. 15  The Effect of Early Childhood Development Programs on Women’s Labor Force Participation and Older Children’s Schooling in Kenya
By Michael M. Lokshin, Elena Glinskaya and Marito Garcia

We analyze the effect of child care costs on households’ behavior in Kenya. For households with children three to seven years of age, we model mothers’ participation in paid work, participation in paid work of other household members, households’ demand for education for school-aged children, and households’ demand for child care. We find that high costs of child care discourage households from using formal child care and have a negative effect on the level of mothers’ participation in market work. The costs of child care and the levels of mothers’ wages influence school enrollment of older children.  The effect of these factors on boys’ and girls’ schooling is different, however. While an increase in mothers’ wage raises school participation of boys, it reduces the school enrollment of girls. Higher prices of child care have no significant effect on boys’ schooling but significantly decrease girls’ probabilities of being at school.

This paper is part of a series of papers on selected topics commissioned for the forthcoming Policy Research Report(PRR) on Gender and Development. The PRR is being carried out by Elizabeth King and Andrew Mason and co-sponsored by the World Bank’s Development Economics Research Group and the Gender and Development Group of the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network. Printed copies of this paper are available free from the World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433. Please contact Owen Haaga, in room MC8-434 or at Comments are welcome and should be sent directly to the author(s) at

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