No. 18  Gender, Time Use, and Change: Impacts of Agricultural Export Employment in Ecuador
by Constance Newman

This paper uses quasi-experimental data from Ecuador to understand the impacts of women’s employment on household paid and unpaid labor allocation. The “treatment” area is in the area of the cut flower industry, which has a high demand for female labor. The “control” area is in a culturally similar, but economically more traditional valley. This approach addresses the problem of endogeneity that arises when measuring the impacts of contemporaneous household labor supply decisions. The analysis shows that with the advent of market labor opportunities for women, women’s total time in labor remains constant while men’s time in unpaid labor increases.

This paper is part of a series of papers on selected topics commissioned for the forthcoming Policy Research Report(PRR) on Gender and Development. The PRR is being carried out by Elizabeth King and Andrew Mason and co-sponsored by the World Bank’s Development Economics Research Group and the Gender and Development Group of the Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Network. Printed copies of this paper are available free from the World Bank, 1818 H Street NW, Washington, DC 20433. Please contact Tai Lui Tan, in room MC3-624A or at Comments are welcome and should be sent directly to the author(s) at

The full-length paper is available in PDF format.