Adapted from: Toolkit on Gender in Agriculture: Gender Toolkit Series No.1, by Monica S. Fong and Anjana Bhushan, World Bank, 1996.

The following sections give examples of one generic and two task-specific TORs, respectively, for ensuring gender analysis in agricultural sector.

A. Generic Terms of Reference for Gender Analysis in Agriculture

These terms of reference can be adapted at any stage of the project cycle and for all subsectors, bearing in mind, however, that it is most effective to incorporate gender early on in the project cycle.

The consultant will:

  1. Describe in general terms the agricultural system(s) of the main agroecological zones or project areas
  2. Determine the major agricultural activities of men and women, with reference to field crops, livestock, farm forestry, processing, marketing, storage, and income-generating activities
  3. Identify constraints and barriers faced by men and women in carrying out their activities
  4. Ascertain the extent to which available technology and agricultural research responds to the needs of men and women farmers
  5. Assess how current agricultural extension services meet the needs of men and women farmers, including the focus of extension for women as farm managers or partners
  6. Identify the technical, logistical, and attitudinal constraints facing the extension service in supporting men and women farmers
  7. Identify the nature and extent of training needed by men and women agricultural extension agents (or other rural agents) to improve their support for farmers, especially women farmers
  8. If appropriate, work with extension staff to plan pilot interventions to improve services for both men and women farmers and to monitor and evaluate their success
  9. Prepare a descriptive and analytical report on the main findings, suggesting appropriate options and recommendations

Recommended methodologies

The consultant will use rapid rural appraisal or participatory techniques, including:

  • Discussions with men and women farmers on their farms and in household compounds, women's groups, community leaders, and selected adults
  • Interviews with men and women extension staff at all levels
  • Interviews with agricultural and social researchers at research institutes and universities
  • Discussions with staff of other ministries, such as ministries of community development or women's affairs
  • Discussions with NGOs working in rural areas and agencies providing different rural services such as credit, inputs, and marketing

She or he will:

  • Analyze project documents and existing data.
  • Attend extension meetings or activities with farmers.
  • construct case studies, as required, of interactions between farming and other activities within households

B. Terms of Reference for Gender Analysis During a Project Identification Mission

The consultant will:

  • Gather information on rural women's and men's roles in society and the economy, with particular reference to agricultural production, processing, storage, and marketing
  • Assess women's and men's access to current public and private services provided to agricultural and rural activities
  • Analyze the technical benefits to be expected from providing gender-balanced access
  • Evaluate the legal, social, technical, and financial feasibility of actions to achieve greater gender balance in access.

She or he will produce:

  • A descriptive and analytic report of findings, with appropriate options and recommendations
  • Terms of reference for studies to define gender-related development activities under the project
  • Outline of themes that might be addressed in future analytic work
  • Specific measures to be included in the proposed agriculture project

At the end of the mission, she or he will:

  • Present preliminary conclusions to government and leave a draft aide memoire
  • Prepare a back-to-office report on return to Washington
  • Present a draft outline of detailed report within one week

Present the final report within one month.

C. Terms of Reference to Review Agricultural Services with Reference to Gender

To the extent that information is available, the consultant will:

  • Identify major farming systems in the project area, the role played by men and women, and the factors influencing those roles
  • Assess the ability of agricultural support services to meet the needs of men and women farmers
  • Identify problems in providing services to underserved clients, most often women
  • Identify innovative approaches already used in organizing delivery systems, the relevance of messages, staff training, and input supply
  • Recommend potential interventions to raise the productivity of both men and women farmers in the context of the agricultural project in a sustainable manner

She or he will liaise closely with staff at:

  • The Bank's resident mission
  • The Women's Farming Division of the Agricultural Extension Service of the Ministry of Agriculture
  • The Women's Affairs Ministry.

Within one month of return, the consultant will prepare a report summarizing the main findings.