Title of the Tool

Objective of the Tool

Notes on the Tool

Desk Review

To gather the existing documented information on the specific topic. This tool is very relevant in getting background information on the specific topic. Specifically when implementing Gender Analysis, this tool aims to understand the extent of gender disaggregated data available in the country.

Involves detailed review of relevant documents within the Bank and within the country. This tool provides an introduction to the existing knowledge of the topic within the Bank and the country.

Household Interview

To directly gather quantitative information from the beneficiaries on their socio-economic characteristics. The quantitative data thus collected will help to interpret the qualitative data gathered through other sources

Typically household interviews are carried out by quantitative study experts. Interviews include a sequence of focused questions in a fixed order, often with pre-determined, limited options for responses. They are carried out among the direct beneficiaries. The unit of study is the household. An average duration of such an interview is estimated to be one hour.

Focus Group Discussion

To openly discuss and build consensus on the perceptions, attitudes and views of the primary stakeholders on the objective and strategy of the proposed project. It also aims to ensure whether the proposed changes are acceptable to them.

FGDs carried out by the qualitative study experts are relatively low cost, small group (four to twelve participants plus facilitator). The participants of FGDs are homogenous, belonging to the same category of the beneficiary population. Separate FGDs with male and female participants are mandatory in order to fully explore gender differences in attitudes, feelings, and preferences. The facilitator should be well experienced in gathering qualitative data to lead FGDs. In addition, the local consultant team leader should ensure that the facilitator has the know-how for how to facilitate equal participation from all its participants. If not, the discussion can get monopolized by a few participants. An average duration of a FGD is 2.Ė2.5 hours. Care should be taken not to increase the duration of FGDs over three hours as participants tend to loose the focus of the discussion. Light refreshments can be served depending on the location and type of participants of the FGD.

Other tools such as trend analysis, social mapping and day time use analysis can be carried out as part of FGDs to capture information on specific topics of interest.

(Details on these tools are provided in the next section of the table.)

Direct Observation

To perceive the existing situation in a selected locality.

Simplest of all techniques implemented by the qualitative study. It involves counting, noting behavior and expression, and registering notable facets of a particular development situation. This could be carried out in selected locations that enable the researcher to capture the activities of the beneficiaries on the specific topic.

Semi-structured interviews

To provide a forum for one-to-one discussion in a relaxed atmosphere on specific topics with direct beneficiaries and secondary informants. Specifically it aims to provide an opportunity for self-expression to populations who are shy or otherwise resistant to opening up in front of others

Also called conversational interviews, carried out by the qualitative study experts, provide a framework within which respondents can express their own understanding in their own terms. It is often structured around a number of pre-determined topics. They are structured by interview guide with a limited number of preset questions with the flexibility to elaborate on specific topics if desired by the person interviewed. This kind of guide ensures that the interview remains focused on the development issue while allowing enough conversations so that the participants can introduce and discuss topics that are relevant to them. These tools are deliberate departure from survey-type interviews with lengthy, predetermined questionnaires. These interviews are carried out with secondary informants and direct beneficiaries. The average duration of such an interview is estimated to be one hour.

Case Study

To study individual cases relating to the topic. These case studies will help in dramatizing / highlighting problems and issues of an individual or a household within a community.

Case study stories bring out the individualís or householdís major needs, issues/problems, and their perception of the solution to these problems through conversations in a relaxed atmosphere. This method probes to document the individualís personal details such as name, place of residence, employment status, marital status, number of children, etc. Sample population will be selected purposively based on the key topic studied. They are undertaken by the qualitative study experts. The average duration of such a conversation can last between 2-2.5 hours depending on the personality of the beneficiary studied.

Stakeholder workshops

To provide an open forum to discuss and build consensus and ownership of the field findings and recommendations and thus arrive at an agreement on the next steps. This is a powerful tool for reaching a consensus when there are contradictions among the information gathered from different sources.

Stakeholder workshops are held at the end of fieldwork. All levels of stakeholders are encouraged to participate in the workshops. The workshop is an effective way to discuss common findings in the field, to disseminate the field findings, to create ownership of the findings, and to decide on the next steps. Participants can include both direct and indirect beneficiaries along with government representatives, Bank staff, and NGOs/private organizations. Average duration of these workshops can range from half a day to a full day.

Stakeholder workshops can also be used as the only major tool to discuss and come to consensus on specific topics such as developing transport strategies, monitoring and evaluation of gender issues in project implementation, etc. In this case, a series of such workshops will be carried out in one or more locations on different recommendations from various studies.

Qualitative study experts are responsible for implementing stakeholder workshops.



Types of tool

Objective of the Tool

Notes on the tool

Trend Analysis

To provide a sequence of changes from a chosen period to the current date.

Trend analysis involves requesting participants to discuss various changes that have occurred within the community over a period of time such as role of women in households, rate of labor participation of women, rate of female children attending schools and universities, etc. Often important events are used to identify the period as people often cannot relate if only dates are provided. This tool is carried out as part of the FGD.

Day-time Use Analysis

To gather information on the various activities of an individual during a typical day. This tool specifically aims to understand the pattern of behavior of an individual.

Day-time use analysis involves gathering detailed information on the type of activities performed by both male and female beneficiaries. It also documents when these activities are performed and the average time spent on each activity. Specifically, this tool will help in identifying the types of activities typically undertaken by men and women and the average time spent by them on various activities during the course of the day. Some of the typical activities covered include time spent on: (i) collecting water/firewood , (ii) waiting for public transport, (iii) accompanying children to school, (iv) travelling to work place, etc. This tool is carried out as part of FGD.

Social Mapping

To provide a visual display of community membersí perceptions of the physical dimension of their community in social and economic terms.

Social Mapping helps to develop: (i) inventory of resources within the community ( types of available roads, modes of transport on these roads, wells, hand pumps, schools, public service buildings, etc); (ii) inventory of type of households (whether slums/poor or non-poor or both); and (iii) location of community resources in relation to the households of differing wealth levels. Maps can be drawn on the ground by the participants or on regular paper. If on the ground, the participants could use different objects like twigs, stones, leaves, etc to differentiate various types of resources, and if on regular paper, the participants could use color markers to differentiate various types of resources. Maps on regular size paper are preferred as they could be included as part of the annex in the specific site report. This tool is carried out as part of the FGD.